Key Research Publications

A compendium and bibliography of key research and publications from the history of direct mechanical ventricular actuation (DMVA) technology, the core technology behind the MCC3000.

1. Anstadt MP, Franga D, Caldwell W, Ergul A. 2006. Mechanical Cardiac Actuation of the Failing Heart Reduces Matrix Metalloproteinases Activity. ASAIO Journal; 52(2): 61A.

2. Kaczmarek I, Feindt P, Boeken U, Guerler S, Gams E. 2003, Mar. Effects of Direct Mechanical Ventricular Assistance on Regional Myocardial Function in an Animal Model of Acute Heart Failure. Artif Organs; 27(3): 261-6. (Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital, Heinrich-Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany.)

This study shows that DMVA improves hemodynamics in failing hearts without complications associated with a blood/device interface. DMVA on Regional Myocardial Function (RMF) tested on eight porcine studies with improvements measured using DMVA.

3. Anstadt MP, Schulte-Eistrop SA, Motomura T, Soltero ER, Takano T, Mikati IA, Nonaka K, Joglar F, Nose Y. 2002, Feb. Non-blood contacting biventricular support for severe heart failure. Ann Thorac Surg; 73(2): 556-61-2.

4. Schulte-Eistrup SA, Nonaka K, Tenderich G, Mirow N, El-Banayosy A, Minami K, Nose Y, Koerfer R, Anstsadt MP. 2001. RV and LV Dynamics During Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuation of the Failing Heart. ASAIO Journal; 42(2): 121.

This study assesses DMVA’s effect on left and right ventricular dynamics when applied to biventricular failure state. Cardiac Index increased by 203% and 225% immediately with a maximum increase of 318% and 348% respectively. DMVA supports LV and RV equally. Pulmonary congestion is effectively avoided by ensuring complete LV assist.

5. Feagins LA, Carrie K, Guill BS, Malone JP, Anstadt GL, Nolan DJ, Anstadt MP. 2000. Myocardial dynamics during direct mechanical ventricular actuation of the fibrillating heart. ASAIO J; 46: 168. [ABSTRACT]

Positive effects of implementing DMVA. Discusses hemodynamic parameters.

6. Lowe JE, Hughes GC, Biswas SS., Non-blood Contacting Biventricular Support: Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuation. Operative Tech Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1999; 4: 345-51.

This paper describes the DMVA functionality, benefits and long term effects for the patient, benefits for the surgeon, and surgical techniques. This article also mentions the five patients that have used the DMVA technology, their etiologies, duration of DMVA use and patient outcome. 

7. Perez-Tamayo RA, Anstadt MP, Ybarra G, Stafford N, Reisinger R, McElhaney JH, Anstsadt GL. 1999. Analysis of External Ventricular Actuation. ASAIO Journal; 45(2):165.

8. Anstadt MP, Perez-Tamayo RA, Davies MG, Hagen P-O, Walthall HP, St. Louis J, Hendrickson SC, Aleem SA, Anstadt GL, Lowe JE. 1996. Aortocoronary saphenous vein graft function after mechanical cardiac massage with the Anstadt Cup. ASAIO J (Suppl) 41(1); 19.

9. Anstadt MP, Perez-Tamayo RA, St. Louis JS, Van Trigt P, Lowe JE, Anstadt GL. 1996. Clinical Experience with the Anstadt Cup for Non-Blood Contacting Cardiac Support. ASAIO Journal; 42(2): 42.

10. Perez-Tamayo RA, Anstadt MP, Stafford NK, Reiseinger RJ, Ybarra G, McElhaney JE, Lowe JE. 1996. Hemodynamic Analysis of Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuation. ASAIO Journal; 42(2):43.

11. Anstadt MP, Perez-Tamayo RA, Anstadt GL, Lowe JE. 1995. Recent Progress Using the Anstadt Cup for Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuatuion. Assisted Circulation; Springer-Verlag; 394-408.

This article is a history from the first conceptualization of DMVA, and initial experiments in Texas in the early 1960's. Some animal studies are mentioned with little detail. A brief discussion of the hemodynamics is presented. This article touches on the selection of the cup materials in the “Analysis of Biomaterials”. Finally, the “Clinical Experience of the DMVA” is referenced with support of greater than 7 days. 

12. Perez-Tamayo RA, Anstadt MP, Cothran L, et al. 1995. Prolonged Total Circulatory Support Using Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuation. ASAIO J; 41; M512-M517.

This article mentions 7 day and long term support of humans using DMVA but is primarily about the need to study large numbers of animals. The studies were conducted on 10 sheep. The study defines materials, methods, and statistics of parameters monitored.

13. Griffith RF, Anstadt MP, Hoekstra J, et al. 1992. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow with Manual Internal Cardiac Massage Versus Direct Mechanical Ventricular Assistance. Ann Emerg Med 21; 137-141.

DMVA generates greater cerebral blood flow than Manual Internal Cardiac Massage, after 15 minutes of ventricular fibrillation.

14. Anstadt MP, Griffith RF, Hoekstra J, Anstadt GL, Brown CG. 1992. Acute Myocardial Reperfusion Using Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuation vs. Hand Cardiac Massage. Critical Care Medicine; 20(4): S25. ABSTRACT ONLY

In this study, DMVA improved immediate hemodynamics and myocardium perfusion significantly better than Hand Cardiac Massage following a 15 minute VF arrest. Studies conducted on adult Yucatan mini-swine.

15. Anstadt MP, Tedder DT, Vander Heide RS, Tedder M, Hilleren DJ, Sostman HD, Reimer KA, Lowe JE. 1992. Cardiac Pathology Following Resuscitative Circulatory Support: Direct Mechanical Ventricular ActuationVersus Cardiopulmonary Bypass. ASAIO J 1992; 38: 75-81.

Study indicates superiority over CPB for resuscitation. This article touches upon the pathology of the myocardium after DMVA has been applied. The article also points to the inherent advantages of using the DMVA; rapid application, lack of blood contact, technical simplicity.

16. Anstadt MP, Stonnington MJ, Tedder M, Crain BJ, Brothers MF, Hilleren DJ, Rahija RJ, Menius JA, Lowe JE. 1991. Pulsatile Reperfusion After Cardiac Arrest Improves Neurologic Outcome. Ann Surg 214(4): 478-490. (Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.)

This study examines the cerebral outcome after resuscitation. Conducted on 22 dogs, the study is controlled and assesses the neurological functions with two scoring systems, one during the 7 day post op period and the other at the end of recovery. Sixteen animals survived the entire process.

17. Lowe JE, Anstadt MP, Van Trigt P, Smith PK, Hendry PJ, Plunkett MD, Anstadt GL. 1991. First Successful Bridge to Cardiac Transplantation Using Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuation. Ann Thorac Surg 1991;52. (Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.)

This article speaks to the benefits of the DMVA and addresses the negative issues of conventional VAD technologies. A primary focus of this paper is the discussion of two patients. The first patient was sustained for 56 hours using the DMVA circulatory support system and lived beyond 1 year. The second patient was sustained for 45 hours using the DMVA; however, the patient had neurological damage so the DMVA was discontinued. 

18. Anstadt MP, Bartlett Rl, Malone JP, Brown GR, Martin S, Nolan DJ, Oberheu KH, Anstadt GL. 1991. Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuation for Cardiac Arrest in Humans: a Clinical Feasibility Trial. Chest. 1991(100): 86-92.

Purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of the DMVA application for patients suffering refractory cardiac arrest. The DMVA vascular access for hemodynamic monitoring was applied to 12 patients.

19. Anstadt MP, Hendry PJ, Plunkett MD, Menius JA JR, Pacifico AD Jr, Lowe JE. 1990. Mechanical Cardiac Actuation Achieves Hemodynamics Similar to Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Surgery; 108: 442-51.

This study assesses the preservation of myocardial energy stores and myocardial responses to ischemia after circulatory support during ventricular fibrillation with DMVA vs. cardiopulmonary bypass. The study concludes that DMVA provides improved myocardial metabolic preservation during the VF compared with CPB.

20. Griffith RF, Anstadt MP, Hoekstra J, Van Ligten P, Anstadt G, Castro L, Brown CG. 1990. Effect of direct mechanical ventricular assistance versus open-chest cardiac massage on regional cerebral blood flow in swine. Annals of Emerg Med; 19(4):208.